Rav Itamar Shwarz, the author of the Bilvavi Mishkan Evneh
Exploring The Connection Between Purim and Yom Kippur
There is a famous teaching of our Sages, â€œYom HaKippurim is like Purimâ€ â€“ Yom Kippur is â€œkâ€™purimâ€ â€“ like Purim. This implies that Purim is â€˜similarâ€™ to Yom Kippur, and perhaps equally or even more holy. Letâ€™s explore our avodah on Purim and its relationship to Yom Kippur.
The festivals of Pesach, Shavuos and Sukkos are celebrated for two days outside of Eretz Yisrael, because of the doubt about their exact dates (sefeika dâ€™yoma). Since all of the festivals contain sefeika dâ€™yoma, they all contain an element of doubt. On an inner level, this means that we are exposed to doubt during these festivals.
For example, consider Rosh Hashanah and Amalek. Rosh Hashanah is a time that celebrates the remembrance of the beginning of Creation, whereas the evil nation of Amalek represents the concept of safek/doubts. Amalek is called â€œreishis.â€ the â€œbeginningâ€ of the nations.2 [Hence, Amalek has power on Rosh HaShanah, since Amalek gets its strength from beginnings]. Specifically, we celebrate Rosh HaShanah for two days, because in the times of the Beis Hamikdash it was difficult for witnesses to see and pass on the exact time of the new moon. Thus, since the Sanhedrin could not be sure if the month was sanctified or not, we celebrate two days of Rosh HaShanah to cover both possibilities.
Unlike the other festivals, Purim is not celebrated on two different dates due to the reason of sefeika dâ€™yoma. Rather, the two days of Purim is only simply to celebrate the two different military victories which occurred on two different dates. Specifically, Purim falls on either the 14th or the 15th of Adar, depending on whether the celebrant resides in a walled city or an unâ€“walled city. The Rabbis agreed that inhabitants of walled cities recite the Megillah on the 14th of Adar, whereas inhabitants of unâ€“walled cities recite the Megillah on the 15th of the month.
So Purim is different from the other festivals since there is no doubt about its date. However, there is an even greater reason why Purim is dissociated from doubt. Purim is a festival celebrating our victory over Amalek which has the same gematria as the word safek. It is wellâ€“known that the evil force of Amalek is essentially the very concept of doubt. Thus, Purim, in which we were victorious over the force of Amalek (Haman), is the antithesis of doubt.
Furthermore, we celebrate Purim in the month of Adar, and Adar stands for â€œaleph dar.â€ â€œThe Aleph (the One)will dwellâ€.23 This phrase alludes to how Hashem Himself fights Amalek during the month of Adar. Haman was an Amelekite and Mordechai defeated Haman during Purim also in the month of Adar. Thusly, Adar is a month of victory over Amalek â€“ and we won through our emunah in Hashem. In addition, Moshe was born in the month of Adar, a leader who helped the Jewish people in their victories over Amalek.
The War With Amalek/Doubt
In summary, the very concept of Purim is the opposite of doubt. Purim is a celebration of the Jewish peopleâ€™s triumph over Amalek/safek/doubts. (Of course, as we will explore below, we cannot erase Amalek completely in our times, because Amalek is at war with Hashem, in every generation. Only in the future will Hashem erase Amalek completely; when Amalek will be completely erased, Hashemâ€™s Name will be complete.)
Every time we doubt Hashem, chas vâ€™shalom, Amalek is winning. Amalek pounces on us at the first sign of doubt in our emunah. The generation who left Egypt surely believed in Hashem, they were in doubt about what Hashem would do to save them. We can refer to their very doubt as â€œAmalekâ€ triumphing over them.
Amalek also comes to attack our kedushah (holiness). When the Jewish people left Egypt, we were on a very holy level, but the Erev Rav (the â€œmixed multitude.â€ which included Amalek) came with us and influenced us. Thus, our redemption from Egypt was not complete.
Amalek was particularly terrible since they also paved the way for other nations to fight us. Chazal compare Amalek to a person who jumps into a scalding hot bath; he burns himself in the process, but he cools it off for others. So too, Amalek were the first nation to have the audacity to attack the Jewish people, and in a brazen manner. By having the audacity to rise up and even attempt to conquer the Jewish people, they showed the other nations that such a coup is possible.
The Inner Point of The Soul Where There Is No Doubt
Now let us learn how this matter applies to our personal souls, and what power we have that can counter Amalek/safek/doubt.
Hashem is called â€œtzur levavi.â€ â€œRock of my heartâ€. The revelation of Gâ€“d lies deep in all of our hearts, as is it written, â€œAnd I will dwell amongst them.â€ The Sages state that Hashem dwells â€œin all of them.â€ every Jewish soul â€“ within each of us lies an inner point in our soul, a â€œcheilek eloka mimaal.â€ a â€œportion of Gâ€“d above.â€  This point is completely holy and it cannot be tainted by doubt. Only the outer parts of us are subject to doubts.
After the Original Sin, human beings were given free will to choose between good and evil. In This World, it is difficult to separate between good and evil. All of us live with two options â€“ good and evil. We as humans are fallible, so our choices are open to imperfections, which lead us to doubt ourselves. But Hashem cannot be doubted. Consequently, there resides no uncertainty or doubt within the Gâ€“dly part of our soul, as long as a person merits successfully in uncovering it and revealing it outward.
When Bnei Yisrael fought against Amalek [there was a constant pattern], When Mosheâ€™s hands fell, Amalek gained strength. When Mosheâ€™s hands were raised Amalek became weakened. The possuk says that Mosheâ€™s hands were raised in â€œemunahâ€. The power of emunah in our soul is essentially the revelation of Gâ€“d within man. When one really lives with emunah â€“ not just because he knows about Hashem, but because he palpably feels the emunah in Hashem deep inside his heart â€“ then he lives with less doubt, and in turn, he is strengthened. But without complete emunah in our heart, we are subject to doubts and are weakened as a result.
Amalek fights Hashem in every generation. We are commanded to fight Amalek and never forget their attack on us. However, the outcome of our efforts to fight Amalek is ultimately in Hashemâ€™s hands. Only Hashem can erase Amalek, because Amalek is all about safek, and man cannot defeat the force of safek without Hashem. We have to fight, but only Hashem can annihilate safek completely.
In other words, the only way to overcome safek is for us to completely integrate our own selves with Hashem. When a person reveals total emunah in Hashem from within himself, he is essentially revealing outward the deep, inner revelation of Gâ€“dliness within his soul. This is the only way man can defeat Amalek. Only when one erases his own doubts by connecting his existence with Hashem, will he essentially receive the power to erase Amalek.
Unfortunately, these days it is difficult for us to even identify Amalek itself, because the wicked king Sancheriv mixed up all of the nations, making it impossible for us to discern the origins of the people of other nations. Thus, we are even in doubt about where our doubts lie, which creates an even more powerful safek. Even more so, Hashemâ€™s presence is more hidden and concealed from us in exile â€“ we constantly lack certainty in Hashem and His truth.
In summary, safek (doubts in emunah) fuels Amalekâ€™s power. Whether the doubts are external or internal, Amalek thrives on our doubts and then takes us over. Thus, our ongoing war with Amalek is unlike any other war. It is an inner, spiritual war being fought between our powers of emunah and safek/doubt. It is about fighting forHashemâ€™s revelation as the â€œVadai Shemoâ€ (His Name is absolute). Only when our Gâ€“dly part of our soul dominates does Amalekâ€™s hold weaken.
Purim â€“ Yom Kippur
Besides Purim, there is another day of the year which is completely holy and not associated with any safek â€“ Yom Kippur. Although there should have been a sefeika dâ€™yoma on Yom Kippur too, the Sages decreed that we should not have two days of Yom Kippur. On a simple level, this ruling was decreed because it is dangerous to fast for two days. But the deeper reasoning for having only one day of Yom Kippur is so that it should not be subject to any safek/doubt.
Chazal refer to Yom Kippur as the â€œyomo shel HaKadosh Baruch Hu.â€ the â€œday of Hashem.â€ You cannot doubt Hashem. We can have doubts about ourselves, but Hashem cannot be doubted. Hashem gave the other festivals to the Jewish people and thus these festivals also have an association with humans and doubt. In contrast, Yom Kippur is called â€œthe day of Hashemâ€. Unlike human beings, Hashem has no doubts, and doubt cannot mix or be associated with Hashem. As the Sages say, â€œIs there such thing as doubts in Heaven?â€.
On Yom Kippur we are like angels. This day is clearly the day of Hashem, the day in which Hashem reigns supreme. Since there are no sins and we are forgiven, so there is no room for the human concept of doubt to creep in.
In summary, the festivals were given to man, who is naturally full of doubt. Thus, there can be doubt associated with the festivals. In contrast, Yom Kippur belongs to Hashem, Who has no safek. Yom Kippur is a day in which doubt cannot take hold.
[Now we can see the connection between Purim and Yom Kippur, and why Purim is like Yom Kippur: they are both days in which can rise above doubt].
Celebrating the Doubtâ€“free Purim and Yom Kippur
These days, we all generally live with uncertainty. We all have â€˜Amalekâ€™ in the soul!Hashemâ€™s existence, His presence, His love for us, is all doubted and unclear to us. But Purim shows us how a situation with two or more options does not have to be confusing because both options are actually necessary. On Purim, we bless Mordechai as well as Haman. On a deeper level, we can recognize on Purim that even Haman is ultimately needed!
In the future, Hashem and His Name will be One. The Gemara raises a pertinent question: â€œIs He not [already] one in our times?â€ The Gemara then answers that in the future His name will be the name of havayah, while now He is called by His name of adnus (Master), which is not the same thing. Chazal teach that Hashemâ€™s name is not complete in our times due to the presence of Amalek â€“ who fuels our doubts of emunah.
There is a teaching that our â€œheart cannot be revealed by the mouthâ€. This means that we do not express what is truly in our hearts. The fact that we read the name of havayah of Hashem but we do not pronounce it, and instead we currently pronounce it with the name of adnus, reflects the fact that our â€œmouth and heart are not in line with each otherâ€. We can see the meaning of havayah in our heart, but the mouth cannot express it. The Torah itself is made up of names of Hashem, but Amalek causes one to doubt even His name!
We are always confounded by doubts. For example, a person gets married, but doubts if his wife is the right one for him. Or he buys a house but remains unsure if he has made the right purchase, and he agonizes over his decision. All of these doubts actually come from Amalek!
Options and doubts are the hallmark of our current exile. And as long as a person has doubts, he does not have simchah. â€œThere is no simchah like the clarification of doubtsâ€. Simchah is when we erase our doubts, and therefore, if a person has safek, he cannot have simchah.
True simchah is achieved only when there is a harmony between our guf (body) and neshamah (soul). The opposite of simchah/joy is sadness, and sadness comes from the body, which was created from the element of earth. When Adam ate from the Eitz HaDaas, the body was cursed with death, which causes it to return to the earth. The Jewish people contain a body and a soul. Whereas the soul wants to rise to Heaven, our body wants to be here on earth. While our soul yearns for Gâ€“d, our body wants materialism. This internal war creates a force of doubt. [We are all born with this struggle with doubt, and our life is a constant battle between our spiritual and our material desires].
Thus, our life in This World is riddled with doubt. But the good news is that a person can penetrate a place in his soul where there are no doubts! When a person erases Amalek within himself, he can connect both body and soul together. This â€œclarification of doubtsâ€ will enable him to reach simchah here in This World even before the redemption.
On Purim, we are commanded to become intoxicated until we reach the point of not knowing â€œthe difference between cursed be Haman and blessed be Mordechai.â€ When we reach this point of shedding our [consciousness] daas, the body and soul become harmonized and all doubt is left behind.
The festival of Purim celebrates the Jewish peopleâ€™s victory over Haman the Amalekite and therefore doubt. Haman intended to kill us and separate our bodies and souls. Our victory demonstrated that we are â€œone nation.â€ Haman himself acknowledged this, albeit begrudgingly. And on a deeper note we also can be â€œoneâ€ within our own self.
In the future, Chazal say that all festivals will cease except for Purim when Moshiach comes. Chazal are teaching us a lesson pertinent to the present â€“ that we can connect even now to the light of the future. Purim thus represents our ability to access an inner point of certainty and trust regardless of the external doubts in our current life.
Living a life full of doubts prevents us being connected to the spiritual dimension. One destined to live in the World To Come (ben olam haba) is essentially one who reveals the inner point of oneness and certainty in his soul, the revelation of Gâ€“dliness within himself. A ben olam haba refers to the place in the soul where there are no doubts.
All realities in this world can be doubted, because they are finite and are not based on Truth. Only Hashem is One and only Hashem is forever. By connecting to His Oneness and emes, we too can erase our doubts.
Purim proves that there is a time where we can exist free of doubts. Although we currently live in a world of doubt, Purim represents a time in this World where we can have both body and soul and still experience certainty and trust without a doubt.
The words here are not simply an intellectual matter. Celebrating Purim does not simply require knowledge of reading the Megillah and learning how to fulfill all the laws of Purim. In order to experience Purim properly, we must experience a day of no doubt in our heart. Then we must actualize this attitude in our life.
Practically Applying This Concept
When a person has a doubt, how does he remove it internally?
One way to get rid of doubts is to seek Rabbinical guidance, as Chazal say: â€œMake for yourself a rav and remove yourself from doubt.â€ However, this is only a limited solution since doubt is deeply embedded within us.
The inner way to minimize doubt is by connecting to our inner dimension â€“ to our inner spark of Hashemâ€™s presence â€“ in order to view our doubts objectively and remind our self that these doubts are not who we really are. We must bring Hashem into the picture. Remind yourself that He is the only true reality and clear out all the uncertainty â€“ He placed the situation of doubt in front of us. We now have a choice â€“ to focus on the doubt, or to focus on the Source of everything (including the doubt itself), which has no doubt.
When you have doubt about which path to choose, you can tell yourself that Hashem created and gave us both these two options. When you remember that Hashem does everything, your entire avodah changes â€“ instead of finding the â€˜correctâ€™ option, you rather are trying simply to find Hashem in everything. If one really wants to do the will of Hashem in every situation, he will find how Hashem is clothed in every situation.
The simchah of Purim is that one can internally feel that everything is from Hashem. The real choice is not between the two or more options. Rather, our choice is simply whether or not to do Hashemâ€™s will. If we focus on ourselves and our choices before us, then we will naturally be riddled with doubts, as we are human and finite and fallible. But if we manage to focus on the fact that Hashem is doing everything, and we nullify our own will to His will, then we can reach an inner place of certainty, of â€œHaVadai Shemoâ€ â€“ â€œHis Name is absolute.â€
Hashem is fighting Amalek, not us. If we fight Amalek ourselves, we are bound to lose. Only once we recognize that Hashem fights Amalek are we enabling Hashem to win in our case. The path before us will become clear only by choosing to focus on doing Hashemâ€™s will.
Purim is the time to see that Hashem is behind all decrees. Even Hamanâ€™s decree ended up being good. Just as Hashem makes the decrees He can nullify them if He chooses. Purim shows us that though man always has doubts, there is no doubt associated with Hashem. The best way to leave all doubts is to see Hashem in and behind every action.
Practically speaking, we should try an exercise of emunah every day in order to battle against Amalek. This will gradually allow the knowledge that Hashem is the One behind everything to penetrate our hearts and overtake our doubts. When we are faced with indecision, we should tell ourselves that the situation was created by Hashem and that He is the only Truth. In this way, one will merit to erase Amalek from his heart and merit the simchah of leaving their doubts.
Through this work, with the help of Hashem, may the light of our discovery lead to the illumination of all of Creation, when Amalek will be completely erased, and â€œHashem will be One, and His Name will be One.â€
 Tikkunei HaZohar 421 (57b)
 a concept and legal principle in Jewish law which explains why some Jewish holidays are celebrated for one day in the Land of Israel but for two days outside the Land.
2 â€œRaishis goyim, Amalekâ€ â€“ â€œThe first of the nations is Amalekâ€ â€“ Bamidbar 24:20
 The Hebrew word Amalek has same numerical value as the hebrew word Purim (240)
3 sefer Bnei Yissocher
 Tehillim: 73
 Iyov 3:4; Kli Yakar Bereishis 1:3, 9:201; Tanya (Ch. 2), Nefesh haChaim (Ch. 1)
 Shemos 17:12
 The king of Assyria who destroyed Babylon.
 Yalkut Shimeoni Tehillim 139
 Yoma 74b
 Referring to Hashemâ€™s essence.
 A substitute pronunciation of the divine name, havaya
 Rashi in end of Parshas Beshalach
 Zohar Beraishis 11a
 Shaalos Uâ€™Teshuvos HaRema 5; Metzudas David to Mishlei 15:30; also attributed to a statement of the Rambam
 Avos 1:16