Why didn’t Avraham bless Yitzchak?
Why was Yitzchak unaware of whom he was actually blessing?
Neither Yaakov nor Moshe required savory dishes before offering their respective blessings.Why did Yitzchak require a savory dish before blessing his son?
Yitzchak, who dined on Esavs game, loved him while Rivkah loved Yaakov.
â€” Bereishis 25:28
And it was as Yitzchak aged and his eyes grew too weak to see that he summoned his older son Esav and said â€œMy sonâ€ and he [Esav] responded â€œI am here.â€ â€¦ â€œgo out in the field and trap me some game and make me a flavorful dish the way I love it and bring it to me to eat, so that my soul will bless you before I die.â€
â€” Bereishis 27:1,3-4
And Elokim said â€œthe earth should issue forth flora; seedbearing grasses and trees that are fruits that produce seed infused fruits along species lines upon the earth.â€ and it (almost) happened. The earth issued forth flora, plants bearing their seedbearing own species and trees [that are wooden] producing seed infused fruits â€¦
â€” Bereishis 1:11-12
and trees that are fruits [The Divine Creative Will was] that the taste of the tree should be identical to the taste of the fruit. However, it [the earth was insubordinate and] did not do so but â€œthe earth issued â€¦ trees [that are wooden] producing seed infused fruits,â€ but the trees themselves were not fruit. Therefore, when man was cursed because of his Original Sin, it [the earth] too was punished for its sin (and was cursed.)
â€” Rashi Ibid from Bereishis Rabbah 5:9
HaShem Elokim said to Adam â€œBecause you hearkened to your wifeâ€™s voice and ate of the Tree regarding which I specifically commanded you â€˜Do not eat from itâ€™ the earth will be cursed on account of you. All the days of your life you will eat of it [the earthâ€™s produce] with sorrow. It will sprout thorns and thistles for you â€¦ â€œ
â€” Bereishis 3:17,18
HaShem Elokim commanded the man saying:Â â€œEat from all the trees of the garden. And from the Tree of Knowledge /Union of Good and Evil do not eat from it. For on the day that you it from it you will definitely die.â€
â€” Bereishis 2:16,17
The woman saw that the Tree was good to eat, desirable to the eyes and attractive as a means to gain intelligence.Â She took from its fruits and ate and also gave some to her husband with her â€” and he ate.
â€” Bereishis 3:6
â€¦ but you shall not sever it; for man is a tree of the field
â€” Devarim 20:19
The Biskovitzer poses several pointed questions about the brachos-blessings; that Yitzchak bestowed on Yaakov, while under the impression that he was Esav:
Why, in fact, did Yitzchak deliver his brachos erroneously and unconsciously? Why was Yaakovâ€™s worthiness for benediction concealed from Yitzchak, the conduit of blessing? Even with his physical vision impairment and the willful blindness caused by his love for his eldest son, as a prophet, Yitzchak could easily have been informed by HaShem that Yaakov is the son deserving of blessing.
We find two other great figures in TeNaKâ€h who bestowed brachos; Yaakov â€” first on his grandchildren Ephraim and Menashe â€” and then later, on his deathbed, on his sons. Immediately preceding his death Moshe blessed the Tribes of Israel as well. Yet neither Yaakov nor Moshe requested mataamim-a flavorful dish; in order to elicit their brachos; so why did Yitzchok?
In order to appreciate the Biskovitzerâ€™s approach to resolving these questions we must first examine how some of the great Torah thinkers understood the roots of blessing and curse.
The Original Sin of the first human beings was not merely the first in a long unbroken chain of transgression on the part of humanity; it was qualitatively different from almost all subsequent sins. Â Â The magihah-writer of the annotations; in Nefesh haChaim explains that while the original humans were endowed with bechirah chofshis-free will; there was still a paradigm-shifting difference between their bechirah chofshis and ours.
While our yetzer hara-inclination to evil; is internal and presumes to be, at minimum, a component of our essential identities, the yetzer hara of Adam and Chavah was extrinsic to their beings and distilled, clarified, unadulterated evil. Our yetzer haraâ€™s â€œpitchâ€ to us is: â€œhereâ€™s what I want to do.â€Â Whereas the nachash hakadmoni-the primordial snake; said â€œhereâ€™s what I think you ought to do.â€ The nachash hakadmonis powers of seduction and persuasion were delivered in the second person. Â Like a presidential candidate from the opposition party trying to unseat the Incumbent kivyachol-as it were; the nachash hakadmonis exhorted Adam and Chavah to vote for the yetzer and against the Yotzer-the Creator; yet the â€œvotersâ€ never conflated the identity of the opposition candidate with their own. Â When they exercised their bechirah chofshis to sin they understood that they were submitting to the will of the nachash hakadmoni â€” not acting on their own initiative.
However, as the Original Sin was the ingestion of the fruits of the Tree of Union of Good and Evil the first humans incorporated evil into their very beings.Â It is not merely that the Original Sin was qualitatively different from all subsequent sins; it was that, by its very nature, it effected that transformation. Man became what he ate, a tangled amalgam of good and evil. For the remainder of their lives Adam and Chavah, and all subsequent generations of human beings (until our patriarchs blazed the trail and the nation of Israel stood at the foot of Mt. Sinai) have been conflicted and ambivalent. Even when humans use, rather than abuse, their bechirah chofshis by choosing to do good and shunning evil they are often convinced that they have gone against their own desires.Â Once internalized, the yetzer hara becomes as inextricably linked with all human thought, speech and deed as a conjoined twin.
Rav Chaim Volozhiner taught that the meaning of the passuk (Koheles 7:20) â€œFor there is not a righteous man on earth, that does good, and doesnâ€™t sin,â€ is that even the greatest of tzaddikim-righteous people; do good with â€œsomething lacking.â€Â There good is not clarified, distilled unadulterated good. It may be miniscule, but on some deeply concealed subconscious level there is an admixture of self-interest â€” of a tad less than lishmah-for its own sake; â€” in even the noblest persons Torah learning and mitzvah performance.
Conversely, Rav Chaim and some other thinkers have argued that there is no evil perpetrated by even the wickedest people that does not incorporate some tiny smidgen of goodness. This is the meaning of the passuk (Iyov 7:20) â€œIf there will be even one angel among a thousand, an advocate, to vouch for a man’s uprightness.â€ The better angels of our nature may be testifying to a 1 tenth of one percent amount of noble intentions against 99.9% of evil drives and motivations, nonetheless, it is there.
As man is a microcosm, or more accurately as the cosmos is a macro-man, the Original Sin brought about a merging and mixture of good and evil on a cosmic level. An overt manifestation of this effect on the cosmos are the presence of weeds, thorns and thistles growing in the same fields that grow the good, delicious and nourishing produce. The earth cursed through the Original Sin brings forth a jumble of good/nutritious and evil/noxious.
The Biskovitzers approach is predicated on the concept that, after the Original Sin, merely choosing good and rejecting evil is insufficient.Â To effect a genuine tikun-repair; of the Original Sin birurim-sifting and selections; must take place. The hodgepodge of good and evil in both the microcosm and the macrocosm must be untangled and clarified. Until and unless evil is distilled and expunged from the muddled fusion, man and the cosmos will not have been rectified. It is not enough to bestow blessing on man still conflicted and ambivalent and on an earth still cursed and pregnant with the thorns and thistles of evil.
When Chavah was first tempted to commit the Original Sin she made three observations: that the Tree was â€œgood to eat, desirable to the eyes and attractive as a means to gain intelligence.” Â Â The Midrash (Bereishis Rabbah 65:13) says that while Chavah yearned for gratification of the palate, visual stimulation and intellectual satisfaction, Yitzchak declared that he would derive pleasure from taste alone. As he commanded his son â€œmake me a flavorful dish the way I love it and bring it to me to eat.â€ Yitzchak was blind and he was ignorant i.e. he lacked knowledge of the factual events surrounding his bestowing of blessing. The Biskovitzer asserts that eliminating the elements of attractiveness to the eyes and the mind that initiated the Original Sin was indispensable to the tikun process.
It is striking and noteworthy that while the Divine Creative Will was that trees and their fruits should share an identical flavor, there was never an expression of the Divine Creative Will that trees and their fruits should share the same qualities of visual attractiveness or extend the same benefit to cognition. Yitzchaks blindness and ignorance of the facts removed two of the three factors of Original Sin. This cut things to the chase by leaving only the element that had been corrupted and broken even before the creation of the human beings; the dissonance in flavor between tree and fruit, between producer and product.
Paradoxically the earthâ€™s anticipatory, pre-Original Sin contained within it the seeds of tikun at the very moment of kilkul-deficiency and ruination; for the Tikunei Zohar (99B) reveals that the Tree of Knowledge itself was entirely good. It was only in the fruits of this tree in which good and evil merged together. The Tree was created as clarified, 100% pure good while its fruits required birurim.Â While Adam became what he ate, the Biskovitzer understood the Midrash to be teaching us that Yitzchak became what Adam had never ingested or tasted; the Tree itself. Yitzchak, the bark of the Tree of Knowledge itself, avoided the ill effects of the bite of its fruit. But like the Tree of Knowledge itself, Yitzchak the man-tree bore fruits of good and evil united in utero. These human fruits of the Tree of Union of Good and Evil required birurim.
The Midrash (Bereishis Rabbah 61:6) teaches that Avraham abstained from from blessing Yitzchak because, as both evil Esav and good Yaakov existed within him in potentia, blessing him would have been comparable to cultivating a â€œtree of life attached to a tree of lethal poison.â€ Now, in Yitzchakâ€™s advanced age, maintains the Biskovitzer, the time had come for the tikun of the Original Sin by threshing away evil from good and bestowing blessing exclusively on distilled goodness and life. As the Zohar (Volume I, 143A ) reveals, when Yaakov received the blessings the earth finally emerged from its curse. The blessed Yaakov manifests man restored to his pre-Sin state. As death is the wage of Original Sin this is why, per our sages (Taanis 5B) our patriarch Yaakov never died.Â Adam is rectified and restored through Yaakov and â€” as teshuvah and tikun always reach back into the past and modify it â€” we now have, as the Izhbitzer taught, an alternate narrative and a new reading of HaShemâ€™s command to Adam:Â â€œHaShem Elokim commanded the man saying:Â â€˜Eat from all the trees of the garden and [also eat] from the Tree of Knowledge of Good â€¦ (And) [But] Evil do not eat from it.â€™â€Â Yaakov is that clarified-by-birurim soul of man that reveals retroactively that Adam was nourished exclusively by the good of the Tree.
Only those who are purely good, with no admixture of even the slightest trace of evil, can be safely and truly blessed. To do otherwise is to irrigate and fertilize a field of weeds, thorns and thistles. This is why Yitzchak bestowed a blessing while Avraham did not. When Yitzchak tasted the savory dish that Yaakov and Rivkah had prepared for him he discovered his own fruit with no difference in flavors, the taste of the bark and the taste of the fruit were identical. Yitzchak, needed to be blind to, and ignorant of, the fruit of evil and to discern the uniformity of flavors, and the blessing worthiness of his â€œfruitâ€ only through his palate.Â This is one of the meanings of the gemara (Taanis 8B) that teaches that â€œblessing is not to be found other than in a thing hidden from sight.â€