Why is the Torah’s system called Halachah?
How does Halachah tread the fine line between confidence and conceit?
If you will â€œwalk/go inâ€ My statutes and are careful to fulfill my commandmentsâ€¦
â€” Vayikra 26:3
Â What nation is so great, that they have Elokim so close to it, as HaShem our Elokim is at whatever time we call Him?
â€” Devarim 4:7
Rabi Tanhuma taught: Once there was a ship that set sail on the Great Sea.Â All of the passengers were idolaters except for one Jewish youth. A furious storm ensued and the ship was tempest-tossed and in severe danger of sinking. Each and every one of the travelers grasped his icons or idols in hand and began reciting his prayers, but to no avail. Â So they said to the Jewish youth â€œcry to the L-rd your G-d, for we have heard that when you [people] cry to Him; that He responds and that He is mighty. The youth immediately cried out [to HaShem] with all his heart, HaShem accepted his prayer and the storm calmed.Â When the ship docked at a port on a unfamiliar island the other passenger told the Jewish youth â€œHere; take some of our money, go into the island and secure some provisions for us.â€ He said to them: â€œArenâ€™t I lodger and a stranger in these parts [the same as everyone else, how will I find my way around?] They responded â€œis there such a thing as a Jewish â€˜strangerâ€™ ? No!Â Wherever you wander â€¦ your G-d is with you! behold; â€˜that they have Elokim so close to it!â€˜ â€
â€” Talmud Yerushalmi Berachos 9:1, Midrash Devarim Rabbah 2:16
Â “And he [Yaakov] come into contact with the Place” (Bereshis 28:11) Rav Huna said in the name of RavAmmi â€œWhy do we euphemistically refer to HaShem as â€˜The Placeâ€™? because HaShem is the Place of His Cosmos â€¦ His Cosmos is not His place.â€ As another pasuk indicates (Shemos 32:21): â€˜Behold there is a place with Me i.e all space is under My domainâ€™. And so we see thatÂ HaShem is the Place of His Cosmos â€¦ His Cosmos is not His place.â€
â€” Bereshis Rabbah 68:9
The all-encompassing system of Torah observance is known as Halachah; a conjugation of the Hebrew verb translated as â€œwalkingâ€ or â€œgoingâ€. Arguably, this term derives from the opening pasuk of our Sidrah. â€œIf you will walk/ goâ€ in My statutes etc.â€Â The system of Torah statutes empowers those who study and observe it to move about and not static. Absent Torah knowledge one is left essentially paralyzed.Â Itâ€™s often said that knowledge is power. In particular, Torah knowledge proffers the power to move.
The Ramchal offers this famous metaphor for the strategy and tactics of the yetzer hara-the inclination to evil:
For the yetzer hara literally blinds his eyes and he becomes as one who walks in the darkness, where there are stumbling blocks before him which he fails to see. As our Sages of blessed memory saidÂ (Bava Metzia 83b), “You laid down darkness and it was nightâ€Â (Psalms 104:20).Â This refers to this world [manipulated by the yetzer hara ]which is similar to the night.” â€¦ the darkness of night can cause two types of visual errors: it may conceal things completely such that one does not see what is before him at all, or it may deceive him so that a pillar appears to him as a man, or a man as a pillar. â€¦ The second error â€¦ is even worse than the first â€¦ inasmuch as it causes people to see evil as though it were goodness itself, and good as if it were evil, and, because of this, [the wicked]Â strengthen themselves in clinging to their evil ways. For it is not enough that they lack the ability to see the truth, the evil staring them in the face, but they also see fit to find â€¦ empirical evidence supporting their evil theories and false ideas.â€ (Mesilas Yesharim 3)Â If a wanderer finds himself lost in a forest that is either pitch black or, at twilight time, where beasts appear to be men and vice-versa then, in this type of dangerous situation, the wisest strategy is to hunker down and not move.
Shifting from the realm of the metaphoric to the sphere of the practical, this means that the greater ones Torah expertise is â€” the more luminous his â€œlightingâ€ â€” the greater his agility and maneuverability in living his life becomes.Â Many of us have desisted from making certain moves for fear that we might be breaking some Torah law unknown to us. So â€” on a very pragmatic level Torah knowledge and observance confers the power and the confidence to move about in ways that would have been avoided while shrouded in the shadows of Torah-ignorance. Thus Torah transforms â€œstandersâ€ into â€œwalkersâ€ and â€œgoersâ€.
The Izhbitzer teaches that the meaning of the opening pasuk is Im bâ€™Chukosai– if My statutes become chiseled into you; â€” part and parcel of you â€” then and only then â€¦ Teileichu-will you go; i.e. will you be empowered to move. Only when the Torah becomes engraved upon a personâ€™s heart, if it becomesÂ an intrinsic part of him can he then â€œgoâ€ and move. Otherwise shev vâ€™ahl taâ€™aseh ahdiph-itâ€™s better to sit and do nothing.
Internalizing the Torah essentially means inculcating the Divine Giver of the Torah as well. As our sages taught: Oraysa Vâ€™kudshah Brich Hu kulo Chad-the Torah and the Holy Blessed One are all One (Zohar I, 24A; II, 60A). With HaShem directing traffic kivyachol-as it were; he who has chiseled the Torahs statutes into himself possesses an internal moral compass and an ethical GPS kivyachol. As the Midrash indicates the nearly-shipwrecked philo-Semitic gentiles traveling with the Jewish youth expected him to be incapable of losing his way or making a misstep even in a literal, geographical sense.
The Izhbitzer reveals an even profounder level of the mobility of those who â€œwalk in/with the Torahs statutes/ decrees.â€
The possibility of one losing oneâ€™s way or entering terrain or seaways fraught with danger is predicated on the notion that there are, in fact, diverse locations with dissimilar characteristics; some that are out of harm’s way while others are perilous. But if this were all a mirage, if a man thought that he had journeyed a thousand miles but had in truth never left the room; then whatever dangers or missteps that he confronted along the way were, in truth, illusory. One who walks with HaShem is in THE Place.Â HaShem is sometimes referred to as â€œthe Placeâ€ because, as our sages taught, He transcends space.Â He is not situated within a particular space, on the contrary all individual spaces and locations are situated within HaShem.
Mindful of this inner truth, the Talmud resolves a very thorny question:Â We derive all 39 melachos-categories of the creative activities; prohibited on Shabbos, as well as the precise specifications of each prohibited category, from the Mishkan-the portable Tabernacle that was home to the Divine Indwelling during the forty-year sojourn in the Wilderness. The category known as stirah-deconstruction/ demolition; is derived from the breaking-down of the Mishkanâ€™s structure into its component parts whenever the Bnei Yisrael-the Jewish Nation; would break camp. Yet among the precise specifications for the prohibited category of stirah is that the one demolishing intends to build new construction on the site that he is now clearing:Â â€œRabbah asked Ulla, â€˜Consider; all forms of melachah are derived from the Mishkan, yet there[in the case of the Mishkan] Â it was deconstructing in order to rebuild elsewhere?â€™ Ulla answered â€˜It was different there for since it is written: â€œBy the Word of HaShem they camped and By the Word of HaShem they journeyed â€œ(Bemidbar 9:23) it was like demolishing in order to rebuild on the same site.â€™ â€(Shabbos 31B). When one â€œtravelsâ€ with HaShem no real change of location has occurred! In HalachahÂ one can be a â€œtraveler/ walkerâ€ with complete confidence. Still, the Izhbitzer cautions us not to allow confidence to outgrow healthy proportions and metastasize into arrogant smugness. In the pasuk â€œIf you will â€˜go inâ€™ my decrees etc.â€ the emphasis is on the word â€œifâ€.Â Presuming that G-d walks with you, that G-d is on your side or, even, that you are on His; is always an uncertain, iffy proposition.Â For even one who toes the halachic line may be contravening the depths of the Divine Will.
E.g. Debts are to be absolved during shmittah-the sabbatical year, and the Torah harshly criticizes potential lenders who withhold loans for fear of having to clear these loans. (cp Devarim 15:9) Yet the Mishnah still teaches (Shviâ€™is 10:8) that â€œIf the borrower seeks to repay his debt during shmittah the lender should tell him â€˜I absolve itâ€™ but if the borrower persists and says â€˜even so [I want to repay my debt]â€™ then the lender should accept payment from him. As the pasuk says â€˜and this is the matter/ word of absolution.â€™ (Devarim15:2)â€ The very next Mishnah exclaims â€œthe spirit of the sages is with all those borrowers who repay their loans on the seventh year.â€ (ibid:9).
On the surface, these Mishnayos seem counterintuitive and contra-halachic.Â If the Torah refers to the sabbatical year as the shmittah-the absolution/ forgiving-of-debts year then it would seem that the releasing of loans is the very definition of such years. Then why should borrowers earn the sages favor by repaying their loans? We are compelled to dig beneath the surface and understand that the Torah contains depths of meaning beyond what is â€œwrittenâ€, even within the oral tradition. Sometimes the halcahah, is like a baggy, loose-fitting cloak that conceals the true shape of what lies within [i.e. the Divine Will], rather than being a revealing, form-fitting, second-skin, leotard that conforms to the precise contours of that which/He Who is being clothed.
Regarding the mitzvah of shmittas kesafim-absolving loans during shviâ€™is; HaShem enlightened the sages to the Depths of His Will â€” that verbal forgiveness of the debt suffices and that actual absolution of the debt is not required.
But this is but a single example among the myriads of Mitzvos and Chukim of the Torah.Â HaShem, kivyachol, is hedging His bets on us, His People.Â He is, kivyachol, praying that we succeed in hewing to and completely fulfilling His Will. â€œIf you will â€˜go inâ€™ my decrees etc.â€ because even if one observes every jot and tittle of the Shulchan Aruch-Code of Torah Law there is still no guarantee that he has conformed to the Will of HaShem on the profoundest levels, for what human being can plumb the Deepest Depths of the Divine Mind and Will?
~adapted from Mei HaShiloach I Bechukosai Dâ€H Im
(the second of three)