An installment in the series
From the Waters of the Shiloah: Plumbing the Depths of the Izhbitzer School
-For series introduction CLICK
Â By Rabbi Dovid Schwartz-Mara Dâ€™Asra Cong Sfard of Midwood
Â It (Yom HaKipurim) is a Sabbath of Sabbaths to you and a day when you must afflict your souls. You must keep this Sabbath from the ninth of the month until the next night. Â
Chiya bar Rav of Difti taught: â€œand â€¦you must afflict your soulsâ€¦[on the] ninth of the monthâ€ Do we begin fasting on the ninth?Â [In truth] we donâ€™t fast until the tenth! Here, the Torah is teaching us that all who eat and drink on the ninth are considered to have fasted on both the ninth and the tenth.
On the tenth day of the seventh month you must afflict your souls and not do any melachaâ€¦This is because on this day you shall have all your sins atoned to purify you. Before Hashem you will be purified of all your sins.
-VaYikra 16:29, 30
There is a lot of conflicting data on the subject of the Torahs attitude towards asceticism.Â On the one hand, Shabbos the basis of sanctified time, is identified with pleasure â€œAnd call Sabbath pleasureâ€ (Yeshaya 58:13 ) and the entire chapter of Yeshaya 58 takes a rather dim view of fasting unless it is coupled with social justice. On the other hand, the very holiest time, the Sabbath of Sabbaths is a fast day.Â The Nazir, who abstains from the fruit of the vine, is called both holy (BeMidbar 6:8) and sinful (Nedarim 10A) as is one who engages in voluntary fasts (Taâ€™anis 11A). The place of eternal rewards is called â€œthe Garden of Delightsâ€, but the delights there are of a decidedly non-physical variety; â€œthe righteous sit with their heads crowned and bask in the radiance of the Shechina-the Divine indwellingâ€
In practical terms this quandary is most pronounced on the 9th and 10th days of Tishrei when the day of feasting that precedes the Day of Atonement and self-denial is reckoned as a day of fasting as well.
The often irresistible lure of this-worldly pleasures is, arguably, the major contributing factor to sin and its concomitant impurities. As such, there is a compelling logic to how abstaining from of this-worldly pleasures would help us attain the contrary outcome of decontamination. Â As the Pesukim (VaYikra 16:29, 30) state: â€œafflict your souls â€¦to purify you! â€œ Â However, as Rav Leibeleh Eiger explains, HaShem desires to sublimate everything (in his parlance to â€œsweetenâ€ everything). Eating and drinking are the general categories under which all the temporal desires and delights fall. Â HaShem wants all of these to be sanctified as well.Â Holy self-gratification may sound like an oxymoron. But since our only will is to fulfill His will and â€œwe cast that which weighs us down upon Himâ€ He then â€œsustains usâ€ with spiritual nourishment. (Tehilim 55:23). When we eat on Erev Yom Kippur in order to fulfill HaShems Mitzvah, eating becomes a catalyst for purity identical to the mortifications of Yom Kippur itself.
The Mohn-Manna Bread provides an intriguing precedent for this counterintuitive concept. The Torah states that the Mohn was like a â€œhoney doughnutâ€ (Shemos 16:31). Per Chazaâ€l diners tasted every flavor that they could imagine emanating from the Mohn (Yoma 75A). Moreover, the clouds that showered down the Mohn sprinkled pearls and jewels as well (ibid). The impression one gets is that the Mohn delighted all the senses. Yet the Torah describes the Mohn experience as one of mortification and affliction (Devarim 8:2, 3). Cognizant of the one-day-only supply of Mohn we can well imagine the anxious longing with which the Jews in the wilderness anticipated its daily arrival. The take away lesson for all generations of Jews from this Hedonistic-Ascetic hodgepodge is that we should yearn for HaShems salvation and be totally reliant on Him for both the eating and the abstention from eating. The feasting and the fasting are both only done to fulfill His will.
The verse: â€œBefore Hashem you will purified of all your sinsâ€ implicitly alludes to Erev Yom Kippur. â€œBefore HaShemâ€ meaning feasting on the day before HaShemâ€™s great and awesome day, Yom Kippur, will purify and decontaminate of your souls just as the fasting on Yom Kippur itself does.
Rav Tzadok, the Lubliner Kohen, Â taught that whenever a Jew consumes food as a Mitzvah the food contains the flavor of Mohn which is the bread of the ministering angels and, as such, it is the flavor of other-worldly pleasure, the taste Â of the radiance of the Shechina. Â The topic of Mohn appears in the chapter entitled Yom HaKipurim in tractate Yoma because Mohn consumption is exactly like fasting on Yom Kippur the point of both activities being to experience spiritual gratification by absconding from the temporal pleasures of the physical world. When the Gemara says â€œall who eat and drink on the ninth are considered to have fasted on both the ninth and the tenthâ€œ Â it is not because eating on the 9th Â is like fasting but rather because fasting on the 10thÂ is a different kind of eating, a spiritual angelic ingestion. Â On Yom Kippur we dress, stand, go barefoot and wear white like angels. Â We fast and are at peace with one another like angels. On Erev Yom Kippur we eat like the nullivore angels dining on â€œthe grain of heaven and the bread of the mightyâ€ (Tehilim78: 24, 25).
Â Adapted from Toras Emes Erev Yom Kippur 5625-1865 A.C.E. (page 57)